Meeting of mountains and water, meeting of ice and fire

Days: 14 days

Time: May

With whom: with friends

Play with group

The author went to these places



city hall


Changdi Park

Amalienborg Slot


Parliament building


Pearl house

Golden falls

Hofdie house

Vick town

Black beach

Blue lake


Sibelius Park

Rock Church

Helsinki Cathedral

Old town

Fort Finland

Toy Museum


China Palace

Stockholm Concert Hall

Vasa shipwreck Museum


Castle Island


Lake Vernon

Songen fjord cruise ship


Hadowell fjord

Oslo City Hall

Published on April 19, 2019 18:10

In 2017, I was busy at home for a year. From the end of this year to the beginning of this year, in order to have a rest, I arranged two Island Tours - Long Beach in the Philippines and Bali in Malaysia. I feel that my physical strength has recovered and I can cope with long-distance travel. My friend proposed five countries in northern Europe, including Eastern Europe, Central Europe and Western Europe. It's just inferior to northern Europe and southern Europe. OK, that's it!

Now it's really convenient to go to Europe. You can send your mobile phone to the front page of your travel agency's passport, fill in a form and open a bank letter. Compared with previous times, this absolute leisure tour has not done any homework before you go out, so you're ready to take it easy!

The itinerary given by the travel agency is 14 days from May 29 to June 11. When booking Wi Fi, Ctrip only noticed the meeting at 23:55 p.m. on May 29. In fact, it's only five minutes on May 29! Well, Wi Fi only needs to be purchased for 13 days, and five mobile phones can be used at the same time. It is a necessary tool for us to send messages at any time.

May 29-30 Beijing Copenhagen Denmark Air China ca877

The departure time of the absolute red eye flight is set at 2:55 at night. Although we gathered early and couldn't stand it, the tour guide had to carry out pre departure education and talk too much. When we went to queue up to change the boarding pass, we were told that there were no aisle or window seats we wanted, and all of them were sandwiched in the middle. However, because of the overbooking, we could upgrade the gold card, and then we were lucky to get the first row seat, Good luck mode is on( I remember that my gold card status before retirement has been upgraded many times, and now it's really good.)

Boarding found that the cabin was decorated with the national flags of China and Denmark, and each person was given a special panda luggage tag. The cabin service was also very enthusiastic. It turned out that this was the first flight of Air China to Copenhagen, Denmark. The cabin service was the famous golden wind crew of Air China. On the plane, I happened to meet the Chinese blind team who went to Denmark to participate in the international gateball championship, There were prize contests on board, random interviews with athletes, distribution of festive cakes and gift cards. When the plane arrived at the Danish airport, we also enjoyed a Watergate ceremony. This was a special treat for the first flight and the lucky start of our trip.

May 30 fairytale kingdom of Copenhagen, Denmark

Tourism starts in Denmark.

The tour guide's name is Congcong, Beijing boy. It's the year of his life. He once studied in Germany and has been working as a tour guide for more than ten years. He will be our tour leader, full company, full company and tour guide. In a word, the whole journey will point to him.

Denmark is located in the northwest end of the European continent, facing Russia across the sea from the Baltic Sea in the East, the North Sea in the west, Germany in the South and Sweden and Norway across the Strait in the north. It covers an area of more than 43000 square kilometers (composed of more than 400 Islands) and has a population of 5.73 million (2016 data). Denmark, founded by pirates, was once a powerful empire in Europe in history, It is located at the gateway of the Atlantic Ocean and serves as a bridge between central Europe and Scandinavia, where economic, trade and cultural exchanges are most intensive and active.

Copenhagen is the capital of Denmark. Denmark has a population of more than 5 million, and there are more than 1.5 million people living in the capital. The original meaning of Copenhagen is "merchant port", which is the world transportation hub. Because the royal family who ruled Europe for the longest time lives here, it is also called "Queen's city"

Today's trip to Copenhagen City Hall, Andersen statue, mermaid statue, Newport bar street and palace.

The city hall is a red brick building with a history of 2-300 years. Its appearance is simple, but its decoration shows a sense of design everywhere. It is obviously of Nordic style. Today, there are activities in the city hall, and the entrance is guarded. Tourists are not allowed to enter,

The round square in front of the city hall is under repair. This is the starting point of Denmark's road network. An old stone signboard can prove its long history.

In front of the town hall is a group of bronze statues of St. George's Dragon slaughtering,

On the side of the town hall is the most famous bronze statue of Andersen. Andersen is a famous Danish fairy tale writer. He was born in 1805, died of liver cancer in 1875 and never married. At the age of 15, he came to Copenhagen from his hometown Odense. His popular fairy tales, such as the ugly duckling, the little match girl, the daughter of the sea, and the emperor's new clothes, have made Denmark the "Kingdom of fairy tales"( The slip of the tongue when Congcong Cong introduced "selling little matches for girls" is enough to make us laugh all the way). Sitting like Andersen, wearing a top hat, holding a cane in his left hand, holding a book in his right hand, his head is slightly raised, facing the left. Across the road is the Copenhagen Museum. I wonder if he is thinking about the next work or guessing the future generations' evaluation of him? Tourists take photos with him and touch the places they can get, so that the left hand and knee of the bronze statue are polished.

The little mermaid is the hero of Andersen's fairy tale "the daughter of the sea" written in 1837. A mermaid princess living in the undersea Kingdom, because he wants to approach the prince of mankind, loses his beautiful voice in the witch, and brings the legs of the human race. The prince marries the princess of the neighboring country, and the mermaid becomes a bubble. The witch told the mermaid to kill the prince and use his blood drop to change his fish's shape on his leg for three hundred years. But the good Mermaid abandoned his life for the happiness of the prince and became a foam in the sea before dawn. The story is familiar to the world. The mermaid is also made into a bronze statue and placed on a rock on the beach of Changdi Park, becoming a symbol of Denmark. The bronze statue is funded by carlaxen, founder of Carlsberg beer company. The head is modeled after a ballet dancer, and the body is modeled on the wife of sculptor Edward Erickson. It was built in 1913, destroyed many times and reproduced with the original mold. My family had this small statue 40 years ago, which my father's classmates sent back from abroad. I envy my uncle for coming to the scene to see her. I dream that I can have such an opportunity one day, and today it has finally come true. The little mermaid sits on a high rock near the harbor. Her head turns to the side of the sea. Her beautiful long hair is braided on her forehead, and the back is scattered on her shoulders. The part of her legs on her feet is a fishtail. It's not easy for tourists to take a picture with her. The reef under her feet is very slippery. Seeing two tourists who almost slide into the water, they give up the idea of taking a picture with her on the reef, Because Congcong reminded me in the car that an aunt of the last regiment had slipped into the water for taking photos. I don't want to be the "aunt of the last regiment who slipped into the water" when he introduced the next regiment.

At the end of Changdi park is a statue of the goddess commemorating the victory of World War II. Yachts moored in the harbor are lined with masts, reflecting the rich life of people here.

There is a river in Copenhagen, which was built in the 1970s to connect the sea. Fishing boats are moored beside the canal. The huge anchor and those antique fishing boats are reminiscent of sailors and sailors who have been wandering here for hundreds of years. There are lots of bars and colorful houses on the bank. It's very similar to what we saw in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. This is a street of Newport bars.

Built in the middle of the 18th century, amelinberg palace is composed of four independent classical palaces surrounded by an octagonal courtyard. In the center stands a bronze statue. King Frederick V rode on a horse. The palace was built under his instruction. It changed its owner and became a royal palace at the end of the 18th century. The current Queen Margaret II of Denmark will live here for half a year, The royal lineage should have lasted for 1000 years, so Copenhagen is known as the Queen's city.

There is a small square opposite the palace complex. There are four square incomplete metal pillars around the huge fountain. Maybe it is to show a kind of incomplete beauty? Across the river, opposite is a super modern opera house. It is said that it was built with DKR 2.7 billion. It is one of the most expensive opera houses in the world. It is in sharp contrast to the classical beauty of the imperial palace here

The parliament building, the stock exchange, these buildings are not far away from each other for hundreds of years. This tour is over. Today's tour is over.

Today, I received the gift card on the plane. It turned out to be a watch. Although the first flight plane is red eye, there is no one with good treatment!

May 31 Copenhagen - Pearl house, Reykjavik, Iceland

The hotel that I stayed in last night followed the European hotel model. It looked good, but the room was narrow, the bed was short and narrow, and it matched with the stretcher. As soon as I entered the door, I went to bed, turned to the bathroom, and then turned to go out. I couldn't understand why the big Europeans were so stingy in the hotel room design? According to Congcong's explanation, there are three reasons for this: 1. Europe is basically a monarchy. In history, the royal family members are not tall, so the bed is not big. The royal family is like this, so the civilians dare not intrude. 2. The temperature in Europe is low, and people love drinking. According to statistics, drunken guests basically fall to the ground and sleep without going to bed when they come back. It's a waste to have a bed. 3. According to the statistics of drunk guests, Drink high back to the room is basically lying on the floor holding the bed to sleep, bed width is not convenient. No matter whether these three reasons are true or false, the narrow bed in Europe is a fact.

This morning, I flew to Reykjavik, the capital of Iceland, by Icelandic airlines. Although Denmark is not a big country, its technology is very developed. In addition to the common airport automatic check-in printing boarding pass, even the luggage check-in is self-service and unattended. Although there is a huge flow of people at the airport, there is no queue waiting for boarding pass change.

Because it's a team ticket, everyone has a seat number. It's a bit silly to see the seats on the plane. Generally speaking, the seats are 232, which should be arranged according to AC DEG HK, that is to say, the one who gets D should be the aisle. As a result, Icelandic Airlines and Icelandic airlines are arranged according to ab CDE FG! I didn't omit the letters. This is the first time I've met. I'm ignorant. Everything is possible. Well, I made a sandwich honestly!

Iceland's temperature is the same as its name. It's cool in summer. It's more than cool. It should be expressed as cold. Today, Beijing is 36 degrees, but here it's only 6 degrees. It's very nice to enter Iceland in a cotton padded jacket. Before getting off the plane, it's equipped, and it's still a little cold out of the airport. Congcong on the bus started his introduction at the right time. Iceland, with a population of more than 300000 and a territory area of 103000 square kilometers, is an island country in the North Atlantic Ocean. It is located at the intersection of the Atlantic Ocean and the Arctic Ocean. The earliest inhabitants of Iceland were Vikings. The name of Iceland was also ridiculed. Pirates first saw Iceland. The island was covered with glaciers and white. Pirates with little Culture named it Iceland, Nearby Greenland is lush and green, so it is called Greenland. From 1262 to 1918, Iceland was first a part of Norway, and then under the rule of Denmark. In 1918, Iceland declared independence and founded a republic in 1944. Iceland has hundreds of volcanoes, which is the most unlike the earth. Because its surface is covered with volcanic lava, it looks like an alien planet. The desolate scenery outside the bus, with the guide's explanation, my attention turns to the outside of the bus, Many of them seem to be bubbling at that time. After the bubbles burst, the inner core is still red. Many of them are cracked and flow lines. There is no grass on them, and some of them are covered with lichens. There are also a lot of volcanic remains in the Chaihe Volcano Park in the eastern part of Inner Mongolia. A few years ago, I learned some knowledge about volcanoes there. Volcanic eruptions can be divided into many types. In addition to the common explosive volcanic eruptions, there are relatively quiet central eruptions. Because there is not much gas in the lava, this kind of eruption will not explode, and the lava flows out quietly, It is called Hawaiian eruption. The lava coverage is small, because the volcanic eruption of Hawaii Island is basically of this type (I learned these volcanic landforms in Hawaii the year before last, and Kilauea volcano is still erupting at present). There is also a kind of volcanic eruption that rarely has explosion in the process, which is called fissure eruption. Hot basalt magma continuously gushes from the fissure, and the fissure is long, It is called Icelandic eruption (this kind of eruption is only found in Iceland). The landform outside the car shows this feature. Large areas of hard ground look extremely desolate. It takes millions of years for the surface of lava to be weathered to form soil after it cools down. Moss first appeared, and then gradually evolved to higher plants. For Iceland, which has a geological age of only 20 million years, continuous volcanic activities and new lava cover constantly. The places invaded by magma naturally remain in the moss stage, and only some of them grow low plants. Interestingly, the magma has been infiltrated into Iceland, When the bus was approaching Reykjavik City, the head of lava flow was photographed from the bus. It can be clearly seen that this is a lava flow to the city. When the temperature drops, the lava flow is fixed. It is full of motion and very interesting.

Reykjavik is the capital of Iceland and the most Arctic capital in Europe. It is known as the "smoking port" because of its rich geothermal energy and white fog. There are glaciers that do not melt all the year round and abundant volcanic geothermal energy. The surface is cold and the heart is hot. Iceland is a real "country of ice and fire". The flag of Iceland is a red cross with a blue background and a white border, The three colors represent blue oceans, white glaciers and red volcanoes.

Entering the urban area of Reykjavik, the streets are neat and clean, and the house shape is very simple. There are some changes in the itinerary. Due to the fatigue of the journey, the original three scenic spots of getting off the plane are changed to one, Pearl Tower, and the other two scenic spots, Hal Grimes church and Xiaobai tower, are changed to go by the way tomorrow.

In fact, the Pearl Tower is a building with a dome that looks like a half pearl on top of six disused huge hot water buckets by the local thermal department. The underground is used to show the geological and geomorphic pictures of Iceland. The top is a restaurant, and the middle part allows people to go outside to have a bird's-eye view of the whole city of Reykjavik. Take the elevator to the fourth floor, and someone guards the door to the outside for ticket checking, Congcong said that it used to be free here. Recently, more and more people have come here, and they have begun to sell tickets.

It's windy outside. It's really cold, but the scenery is really good. You can see the top of the mountain covered with ice and snow in the distance. The top of the mountain covered by clouds is very similar to the table mountain in Cape Town, South Africa. You can have a panoramic view of the sea, port, church, residence and urban area,

The outdoor platform also shows a lot of huge volcanic magmatic rocks, including beach gravel with pores washed by sea water, rocks formed by cooling in the process of hot lava advancing, water ripple like folds on the surface, and moraine (QI) rocks mixed with a lot of stones, which is a kind of rock form deposited when glaciers subside, It is characterized by pebbles of various sizes and types, embedded in sand and silt to form hard clastic rocks, indicating the existence of glaciers.

After dinner, we are going to go out for a walk by ourselves to see the hall Grimes church, which is not too far from the hotel. The church is easy to find, because the island is full of low buildings. The spire of the church can be seen from a long distance, which is a landmark of Reykjavik. It's June now, and it's Midsummer in about two weeks' time. Iceland's high latitude makes it have several months of short night, which is called polar day. Then there is almost no decent sun for several months. It's always dark. Now it's polar day. It's still bright at 12 o'clock at night, and it's going to be bright at about 3 o'clock in the morning. It's still a long time before dark after dinner!

Starting from the hotel, turn left and walk down a road. There are no pedestrians on the road, only cars passing by quickly occasionally, passing a residential area. The houses here are like villas one by one. It's very simple to look at the houses from the outside, but the gardens in front of each house are very beautiful, and another has built a tree house on a big tree in the yard, A ladder is connected with the house. From the layout of the yard, there should be children in this house. It's really happy.

Here comes the church.

Named after a famous Icelandic writer, harlems church was founded in 1940 and completed in the late 1960s. All funds were collected by the church and donated by its followers. Looking from the outside, the church is very simple. It is simple in northern Europe. The exterior wall seems to be coated with cement, gray and without any decoration. However, from the front, the high church actually adopts the appearance of pipe organ. There is a simple cross on the top of the 72 meter high spire bell tower, and the walls on both sides are decorated with lower columns, which is very similar to the appearance of pipe organ, The inside of the church is also simple gray, and the glass is colorless. The Lutheran sect in Iceland believes in Christianity. Lutheran doctrines mainly emphasize righteousness by faith. People can get salvation from God by believing in God. Believers can directly communicate with God through prayer. It seems that those religious rituals are not so important, and the form of the church certainly does not pay so much attention to decoration,

The bell tower here can usually take the elevator to the top. Today, the church is off work, so we can only take a small turn inside. There is a statue standing on the square outside the church. On the granite base below, it is engraved. This sculpture was given to the Icelandic people by the United States in 1930. Who is the sculpture on it? We guess it is the pirate leader who discovered Iceland? Or the church builder? There is no exact answer, but it can't stop us from taking a picture with him. Let's go back first!

It's time to go back. We're looking forward to tomorrow's trip. Let's go out and watch the whales!

On June 1, Reykjavik went to sea to watch the whale golden waterfall geothermal fountain

I got up early and had a little trouble about what to wear. The temperature was 8 degrees. We went out to sea. This time we brought half a box of thick clothes from Beijing for Iceland these days. Do you want to put them on? The ship also prepared the navigation cold proof clothes for the tourists. It was estimated that there was no need to wear too thick clothes inside. Finally, we decided to put on a thin flannel and an assault suit, and soon arrived at the dock. It was gloomy and there was no rain. We were very lucky, because it had been raining in Iceland the week before. The bridge boat that stops at the whale watching boat is a shop and Museum. A large whale skeleton hangs on the top of the boat. The geological conditions in Iceland make it impossible for them to develop agriculture. Fishing is their main business. Iceland is also a country rarely allowed to kill whales in the world. Affected by the North Atlantic warm current, it not only regulates the local climate, It also brings abundant marine resources to Iceland. It is the best living area for whales, dolphins, seals and seabirds. Of course, it also brings a large number of tourists to Iceland.

The ship is divided into three layers. The bottom layer is completely closed. The lower the bottom layer, the more stable the ship will be. If someone is easy to get seasick, stay at the bottom layer. The middle layer can lead to the deck. The top layer is the best place for whale watching. It's far away and has a good view. Of course, it's cold. Our team is naturally the one for the activities on the top layer. The ship has prepared the nautical winter suit for everyone, You can choose according to your height. You can put on your winter clothes and feel like members of the Antarctic scientific research team, The clothes are one-piece. I choose to wear only long sleeve shirt inside. Otherwise, people's activities will be limited. Facts have proved that I am right. It's really cold outside the ship, but I don't feel much when I have this cold proof suit. It seems that my personal preparation is not as good as the one on the ship.

There is a platform on the top floor of the ship. Two girls - they are the staff who are specially responsible for observing the movement of the ship - are there to observe the situation of the sea, and they are still talking about it. There are many people gathered on the top of the ship and they are all looking around. The ship leaves for a long time, and there are other whale watching boats around, especially a whale watching speedboat, Soon the advantages of this speedboat will be shown. Listen to the cheerful voice of the girl on the stage, and then tell everyone loudly, look at the direction of 10 o'clock ahead! Sure enough, there are dark shadows. Everyone's mobile camera is aiming at the target. It's too fast. My telephoto camera can't catch it. I believe those who take mobile phones will have no chance. Look at the 2 o'clock direction! Look at the 12 o'clock direction! Seven o'clock! The two girls kept giving instructions. It was true that there were many groups of fish in front of them. The dolphins showed their sharp fins and swam fast. The whales showed their big back and then tilted their tails. The whales were spraying water. The fish kept changing direction. The speedboat took advantage of it. It was changing direction around the fish group quickly, which showed that the fish were swimming around them, I turned my camera to the high-speed company. As soon as I saw a school of fish, I aimed at the target and strafed. I believe there would be harvest. Finally, I saw some dolphins dancing around the speedboat. They jumped out of the water in various positions, and then either vertically or bent or turned to drill into the water. That's great. Congcongcong said that he had brought a group to watch whales many times, and only a few of them saw whales, It seems that our luck is strong,

Petrels, gulls and ducks don't really live in the same area.

Three hours passed quickly. After lunch, we will go back to yesterday's two trips, church and Xiaobai building.

Because we visited the church last night, we can visit the street in front of the church today. However, a little introduction is very useful for us. The statue standing in front of the church is not a pirate or the designer of the church, but the person leading the independence of Iceland: Lev Erickson.

Xiao Bai Lou hofdi Lou, an isolated white house, was first built in 1909 as a French Consulate and later as a private residence. It became a British Consulate's residence in 1938 and then changed its ownership several times. The most remarkable event here was the talks marking the end of the cold war between the late US President Reagan and the former Soviet leader Gorbachev in 1986, That's why we regard it as a tourist attraction. Let's take a look at the place where this historical event happened.

Take a bus to Vick town. On the way, we will visit two scenic spots, geothermal geysers and golden falls. Iceland has abundant geothermal resources due to its numerous volcanoes. Geysers are the manifestation of geothermal activity (of course, volcanic eruption is the most active),

Walking through a wilderness, you can see a lot of hot pools on one side of the path. One of them is designed as a small house, and the hot gas comes out through the chimney of the small house. It looks very interesting, a little smoke curling,

There is a bare rock in front of us. A group of people form a circle. In the middle of the rock is a pool with a diameter of more than ten meters. This is where the geyser sprays water. When I heard the cheers from a long distance, a water column spouts out. I immediately fell to one side and everything returned to normal. I ran a few steps quickly because Congcong said that it will erupt every few minutes. I can't lose my next chance, Get the camera and mobile phone ready, aim at the round pool, there's a sound! Press the shutter of the camera, and the mobile phone starts to record. Watching the water in the round pool bulge a big blue bubble, just like the sapphire on a ring, it turns into a thick water column and rushes straight to the sky. This is 100 degree hot water! It's so spectacular. In a few seconds, everything is calm again. This is the pulse of the earth, as if you can feel the breath of the earth.

Golden waterfall is a wonderful place for people to appreciate the power of nature. It's about half an hour from the geothermal fountain to golden waterfall. The name of golden waterfall has several origins. One of them is that the waterfall is often dyed golden yellow by the setting sun. The other is that when the sun shines brightly, it will form a beautiful rainbow when it shines on the thin spray. Now the sun shines in the sky, If we can see the rainbow, it depends on our luck. When we turn a small mountain pass along a path, we can hear the roar of the waterfall,

You can see the waterfall in front of you. It's a two-stage waterfall. The upstream river is about 200 meters wide. The first stage falls 32 meters and the second Falls 72 meters. Rainbow, rainbow! We kept changing angles, trying to make the rainbow more complete, and suddenly realized that the rainbow would not disappear because of the huge drop, the turbulent water spewed out a lot of water vapor, forming a huge curtain wall reflecting sunlight, which could be shot calmly,

Up the path by the waterfall,

Looking at the source of the waterfall, we can clearly see from the exposed rock joints on the opposite cliff that it should be the product of the volcanic earthquake. The gentle and open glacier River above suddenly shrinks and falls down a cliff of more than 30 meters. Then a big fissure with a drop of more than 70 meters appears at the corner. The river is rushing and roaring down, stirring up water mist several meters high, and the rainbow in the sun is as clear, So complete, it's amazing! It is said that few people can see rainbows, because Iceland is either overcast or rainy, and there are few sunny days. Of course, the half year when there is no sun is even less. We are hit by good luck again!

Today, we have to celebrate. Six of us (four of my husband's classmates, plus one of my family members, the team of my classmates is relatively pure) bought roast chicken, beer, ice cream and all kinds of food from home. We had a little wine and had a chat for one night.

June 2 black beach waterfall Blue Lake Hot Spring in Vick town

Vick town is at the southernmost tip of Iceland. There are many waterfalls here. On the way to the waterfall, you can see a very typical volcano and the snow mountain (ice sheet) in the distance, If you look at it, it seems that this is the Eyjafjallajokull volcano that erupted twice in 2010, and has erupted many times in recent years, which has had an impact on Iceland's aviation industry (the travel agency suggested that this volcano should be seen during this journey).

It's summer in Iceland, and the snow on the ice sheet begins to melt. Along the way, you can see many waterfalls, large and small. Selyalan waterfall is a waterfall for tourists to visit. Although the drop is only more than 50 meters, and the width of the waterfall is not very big, the water volume is OK. The waterfall falls into the deep pool below and roars. It climbs up the mountainside along a winding path, and the water fog rushes towards it all the way, We are prepared - with raincoats and waterproof cameras, we can drill into the back of the waterfall. There is a cave in the middle of the mountain, and the waterfall forms a water curtain. Maybe the water curtain cave in Huaguo Mountain should be like this.

Go on for about half an hour and come to the black beach. It's easy to understand the black beach, because the volcano erupts black rocks, which are washed into broken sand by the sea to form a black beach. We have seen the black beach on the big island of Hawaii. The difference is that the volcanic eruption there also brings out a lot of green olivine, which are also washed into fine particles by the waves, So if you look at the sand carefully, it should be composed of black green and white (broken shells). When you walk into the black beach here, it has its own characteristics, because the black is not sand, but small black stones, and larger black pebbles. The pebbles are very smooth, round, oval, with holes, and dense, Those small and round black stones can be used as go pieces,

Looking up around the bank, it's amazing. The rocks here are so beautiful. It's a very typical volcanic eruption columnar joint. Its formation should have specific conditions. During the gradual cooling process of the volcanic eruption hot magma, because it contains a lot of crystalline material, it forms a quadrangle or hexagon according to the crystal structure, and cools while erupting, The hills on the edge of the black sand beach are first made up of some thin strip structures, and then they turn into thick columns of different heights,

When you turn around, you can see a cave. When you go in and look at these columnar rocks, they seem to be cut off by some force. They are all in a disorderly arrangement. It looks like they are stretching their teeth and claws. It seems that they are pulled by a lot when they cool down. There is a feeling of twisting and struggling. When you go into the cave, you also have a feeling that these rocks have become metal, If you look carefully, it's actually some calm colors that make the rocks feel very three-dimensional. What's very interesting is that when you take photos in the cave, the colors of your clothes will change. Red will turn into orange, and dark blue will turn into light blue. It seems that there is a strong light on your body,

Not far from the coast, there is a very special beach, on which are distributed many yellow rocks which are quite different from the black beach. These rocks are the moraine rocks, which were seen in the Pearl Tower that day. The Yellow rocks are mixed with pebbles and other stones, which are left over from the retreat of glaciers, indicating that there was glacial activity here, From a distance, it looks more like an alien planet.

Today, I took care of my lunch. Congcong on the bus recommended the Lamb Soup at the rest station when I stopped for a while. The mutton was boiled with water, without any seasoning, with carrots and potatoes, and bread. It's a very simple and fragrant lunch. I'm really looking forward to it. I like mutton very much. I like lamb soup. It's too fragrant to cook with water without any seasoning! When the rest station arrives, it's easy to find someone who sells mutton soup. How many copies can I buy? Let's have a try. Here's the soup. Where's the soup? Isn't this a bowl of dishes? To be exact, it's soup. It's mutton, carrot, potato and onion. It's just a mutton version of red vegetable soup. Fortunately, they bought one. I wanted to drink mutton soup!

Today, we have another important play, which is to soak in the hot spring in blue lake. Many people need to make an appointment. Now it's still early to make an appointment. Let's go to see a waterfall. There are many waterfalls here. There's a path along the mountain to climb to the top of the mountain to see the source of the waterfall. There's not much time. We feel very tired and don't want to see it. Let's feel the dynamic of the waterfall in front of it.

There's still time. Congcong said that the driver added a scenic spot for everyone. When the scenic spot arrived, it turned out to be a horse farm. This is a horse farm for Icelandic horses, which can be rented for riding,

Icelandic horses are also the name card of Iceland. More than 1200 years ago, Icelandic horses and the then settlers came to Iceland at the same time. In order to ensure the purity of horses' blood, a law prohibiting the import of horses was established on the island in 930 ad. at the same time, any horse leaving Iceland for international competition is no longer allowed to return to the motherland. Therefore, Icelandic horses are the purest breed at present. Icelandic horses are smart, In the Olympic horse dressage dance performance, more than other horses will be a footwork, so often as a participating horse. Icelandic horses are not tall, with long manes and long tails. They are cute and close to people. More than a dozen horses in the stable are resting. They are of various colors. They are not frightened to see so many tourists. Some of them take the initiative to stretch out their heads and let people touch them. They look very good.

It's time to soak in the hot spring. I'll drive to the hot spring bath and the blue lake. I think it's good to listen to it. It must be that deep blue. Today, it's cloudy. Generally, the blue is the result of sunshine on a sunny day. What color will the blue lake be if there is no sunshine now? It's said that this is a thermal power plant. It depends on geothermal power. This is the blue lake. Suddenly someone in the car saw the blue water surface. Looking from the gesture, the blue lake is really a blue lake. The blue is absolutely different from the imagination. The blue is white, the blue is opaque, and the blue is very pure. It's more accurate to describe it as ice blue, Just like the blue and white exposed at the glacier break, its color has nothing to do with whether there is sunlight.

On the way to the hot spring field, there are high lava and rock deposits on both sides, which seems to be a road opened in the thick lava. We can't go in yet, because there are still tourists in front of us, so we need to wait. The time we were given was 90 minutes. After waiting for nearly half an hour, we got the hand card, but the time was not delayed. The original one and a half hours still have an hour, It's a fairyland to change clothes and enter. The ice blue lake is foggy and the water temperature is 36-7 degrees. It's really suitable,

With his hand card, everyone can get a drink. There are many kinds of drinks. Congcong introduces cocktails and drinks cocktails in the blue lake. He feels like a winner in life. There are many people in line. When he comes to see so many kinds of drinks, what do he choose? Forget cocktails, I have no resistance to orange juice, just orange juice! Some of us asked for beer and some for sand ice. Fangfang wanted a cocktail, but I forgot the exact pronunciation of the cocktail for a moment, so I left with a drink. Two group members stopped me and asked me what to say about the cocktail. I blurted out cocktail and remembered! Cook what? She asked aloud, cock tail! Look at the way she turns her eyes and tries to remember. I guess she will never remember this word again when she is in line.

It's only 20 minutes to soak up the hot spring. It's time to take a shower. It takes time to bathe and change clothes. Here, under the water, especially near the shore, there are lots of white mud. It's the best mask and skin care product. It's the action that everyone in Blue Lake must do. If you catch a handful of mud coming out of the water, it will run away along the fingers.) it sticks to your face, with a bad smell. Is it rotten? Is that so? Egg volcano and the smell of sulphur dioxide. The shop sells the mask of this mud. It's very expensive. To make clear, Blue Lake is a sea water hot spring. Besides the sulphur and salt of the volcano and the salt of the sea water, when the swallow swallow mud, it is customary for the eyes to wash the lake water. Thanks to my underwater camera, we still have images in this environment.

I went ashore in a hurry to change my clothes and got back to the bus on time. We arrived one after another. Two people didn't come back. We waited for half an hour on the bus. It was the two people who asked me what to say about cocktails. They remembered the wrong time and stayed in the hot spring for half an hour. I don't blame them. The team arranged too short a time for the hot spring, It's not worth it to be in the water for less than half an hour. Forget it, just experience it. You often encounter such things in your life. Some are enjoyment, some are experience. You can't be satisfied everywhere.

Get up early tomorrow, get up at 4 o'clock, leave at 5 o'clock and fly to Helsinki, Finland by 7 o'clock.

June 3 rock chapel, Sibelius Park, Helsinki

The hotel last night was very interesting. The town was very clean and tidy, and no pedestrians were seen. The three story Hotel (Hotel Keilir) should be a big building. The key is that the rooms allocated to us, in addition to a double bed standard room, also have a three bed room and a four bed room,

One day, I was too tired to wash and sleep. The next morning, I heard a ping say that they heard a lot of noise at night. Maybe someone was making trouble after drinking. The police all came, and we also heard it. We just didn't get up to watch. Zhenzhen didn't hear anything at all, because they had four beds. They joked that their two boxes also had one bed, so they naturally slept soundly. Yesterday was the weekend. According to Congcong Cong, people here usually get their salary on Friday and leave the expenses for next week to go to the bar. They have no sense of saving money. The krona to RMB ratio in Iceland is 16-18:1. Icelandic people have to work until they are about 45 years old to buy a house, Young people who have just worked and haven't made a lot of money have to complain if they don't have their own houses). The employment policy here in Iceland is preferential for local people. For the same job, the salary of local people is two-thirds higher than that of foreigners. For example, our bus driver is polish. The local people earn 30000, but they can only earn 10000. There is a lack of professional and technical personnel here, For example, the monthly salary of nurses is about 30000-40000 yuan.

The airport is still a self-service check-in machine. We don't have to worry this time. On the voting page, we chose our tickets to be aisle and window (although there is not much choice), and we can fly to the vanta airport in Helsinki very comfortably.

Finland, with an area of 338000 square kilometers, is the seventh largest country in Europe. Helsinki, the capital, is the second highest latitude capital in the world (the first is Reykjavik, Iceland). The population of the country is 5.5 million, and there are 500000 people living in Helsinki. Finland is known as the country of thousands of lakes. The inland water area of the country accounts for 10% of the total land area. There are 178000 islands with a forest coverage rate of 75%. Trees, forests, islands and lakes constitute a beautiful scenery in Poland. Finland is also the most honest country in the world. There are only five buses in the country, and the official meal price is 24 euro, Finland's civil servants are clean and efficient. Transparency International, a non-governmental organization that monitors corruption around the world, released the 2012 global corruption index report. Among 176 countries and regions, Finland ranks first and is the most clean country in the world.

From the airport directly to the first scenic spot - Sibelius Park in the center of the city. This park was built in memory of Sibelius, the great Finnish musician. Sibelius began to compose music at the age of 9 and died at the age of 92 in 1957. He composed seven symphonies in his life. In 1899, he wrote "Ode to Finland" which reflected the determination of the Finnish people to fight against the Czarist rule. Sibelius used music as a weapon, It calls on the Finnish people to join in the movement of national independence, so as to establish the position of the composer himself and Finnish music in the world music history. One of the most typical scenic spots in the park is the metal statue of Sibelius. Next to the small head is a group of statues composed of 600 steel pipes, which are similar to pipe organ. The park is full of green trees, and there are people lying in the sun on a large area of grass. It seems that the sun here is very precious.

The rock church is also a must for tourists. The rock church, also known as tempellioquio church, was completed in 1969 and listed in the world cultural heritage list in 1979. The building of the church is very distinctive. From the outside, the church is like a blockhouse, a simple concrete door frame,

The top of the church is coiled with a 22 kilometer long copper strip, 24 meters in diameter and 13 meters above the ground,

The walls of the church are 5-9 meters high. The walls and the top are connected by some grilles made from the top of copper strips in the form of radiation. The top is designed as a shining sun, which also solves the problem of daylighting in the church,

The interior walls of the church are not decorated with any bare rocks. The simplicity is not simple. The brilliant roof, the original walls and the glittering candlelight make the church full of artistic appeal and show a sense of design everywhere,

The Finnish national church is also a Lutheran sect of Christianity. It pays attention to justice by faith and does not pay attention to form. Even the cross outside the church reveals extreme simplicity. Of course, simplicity itself is also a Nordic design feature.

Helsinki Senate Square, in the center of the square stands the bronze statue of Czar Alexander II, which was built in 1894 to commemorate the full freedom given to the Finnish people during his rule( Finland was ruled by Sweden in the second half of the 12th century. After the Russo Swedish war in 1809, it was incorporated into the Russian Empire and became a grand duchy. In December 1917, the Republic of Finland declared independence and became a permanent neutral state.

The following arrangement is more relaxed. It's close to the South Wharf. The South Wharf open-air market is a lively place. There are all kinds of Finnish specialties, souvenirs, department stores, furs, stones, jewelry and so on. There are also fruit and snack vendors,

Behind the market is the city hall. Congcong told us that we can go to the city hall to go to the bathroom. Oh, I see. Behind the town hall is the white building which looks very beautiful. Helsinki Cathedral, also known as the white church, is celebrating the 100th anniversary of the founding of the National Guard. The square in front of the church shows the weapons and equipment of the Finnish army, tanks, armored vehicles and all kinds of guns. Citizens can visit and even board tanks and military vehicles at will.

Tomorrow, Congcong arranged an activity at his own expense. He took a boat to Tallinn, Estonia, to visit the ancient city which is listed as a world heritage site. All the members of the group except us went there, because we had been there three years ago. So tomorrow, we have to arrange a free trip by ourselves. Tonight, Fang Fang Fang's cousin is going to visit and discuss tomorrow's activities, She has been here for more than 10 years. Her daughter came here when she was ten years old. Now she has just graduated from high school. With their help, our free trip tomorrow will be wonderful.

June 4, Helsinki, Finland

Last night, cousin Fang Fang came to visit and agreed on the tour content. First of all, we need to solve the traffic problem. There are many preferential ways to sell tickets in Finland, including a 24-hour ticket, 9 euro / person. We can take all kinds of buses, boats, subways and even trains within 24 hours. We can buy this ticket first, and then take a boat to Fort Finland, a famous local scenic spot, In the afternoon, we will go to the parking lot according to the time stipulated by Congcong Cong to find our bus and army. Then we will go to Turku, because we are going to take a cruise ship to Stockholm this evening.

In the morning, I followed the team's bus to the south pier, waiting for cousin Fang's arrival. First, I went to the city hall to see if I could really go to the bathroom. The door was locked, but it was not time to go to work,

My cousin and my daughter showed up in the square on time. My daughter went to buy tickets for us first, and then we swayed to the front of the city hall. This time, the door opened. A person on duty sat behind the reception desk, looked up at us, and then bowed down to do his own business. Cousin Fang told us not to pay attention to him. We turned left in the bathroom and went down a few steps into the bathroom. Is this the bathroom? It's so big. There are toilet compartments on both sides and three huge wash basins in the middle. There should be six wash basins. They are clean and tidy, and have no smell. They look a bit like a laboratory. I can't help taking a few photos to expose them,

When you get out of the bathroom, you can stroll around the city hall. There are computers for people to search information and surf the Internet. There are all kinds of text materials. There is a special exhibition in one area. It should be an old film exhibition in Finland. There is a comfortable sofa to sit down at will. Next to it are earphones. You can watch the old film clips on the screen. There is a folk costume exhibition in one area, There is also a clothing store for large-scale activities. A small conference area can be used for small lectures and meetings. We have a stroll and a rest in it. During this time, we see that many people (some tourists and some citizens) come here specially for going to the toilet and turn left at the door. No one asked, no one managed, the city hall in Beijing should be the municipal government, right? See more is surrounded by petitioners.

The tickets are bought. First, go to the South Wharf to take a boat and head straight to Fort Finland. When you buy a new ticket, you have to swipe your card to activate it for the first time, and then get on the boat 24 hours later. You don't have to show it when you get on the train. Unless someone checks it, we are very surprised that if you meet someone who doesn't consciously buy a ticket, cousin Fang says that people in this country are very conscious.

The boat took about 15 minutes and Fort Finland arrived. Finnish fort was built on a series of islands off Helsinki with a history of more than 250 years. It was the largest naval military fortress. At that time, Finland was under the rule of Sweden. This fortress was designed by Swedish artillery officer okstin. His idea was to build a linked fortification for these islands to play a defensive role, It's a pity that he left before the construction was finished. The fortress was built to prevent the Russians from invading Finland. At that time, Russia was eyeing Finland under Swedish rule and wanted to seize the island as its own maritime supply base. Finnish fort was known as Swedish fort at that time. After the Russian Revolution in 1917, Finland began to fight for independence. In 1918, the Finns took back the castle and renamed it Finnish fort. There are churches, barracks, gates and battery on the island. In 1991, it was listed in the world cultural heritage list by UNESCO. Now it's free. When the ferry approached the island, the first thing we saw was the church on the island,

Helsinki Cathedral, which is more than 80 meters above sea level, was built in 1852 and is a local landmark. After going to the island, go up a gentle slope along a stone road, and turn left to get to the main entrance of the church,

Opposite the church is a row of houses called ehrensvard, which were built in 1775-1788. It is more like a wall. Entering from a small door hole, there are buildings inside. The wall has a door toward the interior. It seems to be a residence, and there are kindergartens inside. In the past, it was a warehouse, maintenance workshop and office for military purposes.

Go out along the path, along the way lilac fragrance,

Two geese are looking for food with their children. They are far away from other geese. It seems that this is the geese family with both parents.

There are several museums on the island. The Ship Museum is at the gate of the big anchor, and the toy museum is at the gate of the signboard. Almost all the buildings passing by have outward gun holes on the external walls. You can imagine the defensive effect of this at that time,

After crossing a bridge, turn right and go up the slope, there is a big stone wall. At the entrance of the gate, it says, "Sumen Linna fortress was listed in the world heritage list in 1991.", It's a unique military architectural relic in UNESCO's Convention on the protection of world cultural and natural heritage. "It's a cave like space made of rocks. It can go a long way inside. It may be a channel for the troops to move quickly inside at that time.

The highland by the sea is a fort. This is the fort Museum. The cannons line up along the coastline,

The slope behind the cannon should be a cave for storing ammunition. From here, you can look across the sea from Helsinki. When you return to the church, you find that the iron chains around the church are actually fixed with the barrel of the cannon. Does it mean that this is a military fortress church?

The ferry on the return journey runs every 20 minutes. We go back to the city, get off the boat at the south pier, and go to the snack stand to have lunch. Here is the fried fish we saw yesterday. It's like onion rings. One person can eat it one by one, wrapped in tin foil, and take a bite of it. It's very hard, not onion. I'll take it up and show you, A seagull dived down and snatched it from me in a hurry. Only then did I notice that a large number of seagulls were coveting the food in the hands of tourists and were ready to start at any time. We left the scene quickly,

The next step is to consume this 24-hour ticket in our hands! Our plan is to take buses, trains and subways. We can't let go of all the means of transportation that can use tickets! Take bus No.2 at the South Wharf and go straight to the railway station,

The railway station is an old building with brick external wall, round arched gate, and a tall bell tower with green spire,

No matter which train it is, it won't take long to get out of the station and then go back on the same way. Cousin Fang helps to choose a train that will leave immediately. Everyone gets on and sits down to enjoy the scenery and eat fish. The car is very empty, clean and tidy, and passengers are allowed to take bicycles. One stop will arrive soon and go back on the same way,

Enter the station hall, turn around and transfer to the underground subway. The subway carriage is red. Soon after departure, it will get out of the ground. Take the first stop and return the same way. Then take the second bus back to the south pier. Go shopping to buy some souvenirs with Finnish characteristics. It's time to say goodbye to cousin Fang. With her help, you have a good time.

Join up with the army and take a car to the bunker. Turku, also known as Turku, is located in the southwest of Finland. Sweden ruled Finland for 500 years, leaving behind many ancient castles. For example, the castle of the king of Sweden looks very simple. Turku is the capital of Finland before independence, and the capital moved to Helsinki after independence. Turku, which was destroyed 14 times by war, is now Finland's largest passenger ferry,

After dinner, board a cruise to Stockholm, the capital of Sweden. The cruise ship is the Baltic princess, with double rooms in the inner cabin. Two folding sofas pull down to form two beds. The bathroom is super small, without windows, and decorated with a round glass mirror similar to porthole. This is quite different from the large cruise ships we have been on, because it is a short cruise ship, and the facilities on the cruise ship are mainly shops, Such a small room did not block a small meal of wine of some old classmates. I found a slot machine in the stern of the boat. I played for a few hours and went back to sleep.

June 5 shipwreck Museum, city hall, Queen's Island, Sweden

I got up early again this morning because I had to get off the ship at 6:10.

We came to Sweden. Sweden, with a land area of 450000 square kilometers, is the largest country in northern Europe, with a population of about 10 million. The annual Nobel Prize is held in Stockholm, the capital of Sweden. Sweden is a country with highly developed economy, with well-known enterprises such as Volvo cars, Ericsson, abb (all electrical outlets in our home are ABB), Electrolux (our refrigerator and air conditioner), and so on, IKEA, H & M, Waldner, a famous athlete, I found that my life has so many connections with Sweden! Today we can finally get to know the country up close.

The first trip is a self financed project, visiting Queen's Island. Queen's Island is 15 kilometers away from the center of Stockholm. Stockholm is located on the east coast of Sweden, adjacent to the Baltic Sea and the entrance of Lake meraren. The city is distributed on 14 islands and connected by bridges. Queen's Island is one of them, belonging to the Royal territory of Sweden and the home of the king of Sweden. In 1981, the king of Sweden chose Queen's Island as a place to live for a long time, Queen's Island is also the first place in Sweden to be listed as a world cultural heritage site.

The bus stops in the parking lot. Entering Queen's Island here should be interpreted as a tour from the rear of the palace. First of all, the right hand is a forest, where the king hunts,

Qianjin is a Chinese palace area composed of three independent buildings. It is said that the Chinese palace and China have a long history. Sweden has been dealing with China since the 1830s. In 1731, the Swedish east india company was established in Gothenburg, mainly to trade with China. In 1753, the king built the Chinese palace on the island as a birthday gift to the queen, Following the characteristics of Chinese architecture at that time, China palace built a main hall, a side hall and two pavilions. The main hall is a main hall, which is connected by two corridors on both sides. On both sides, there is an independent building called Pavilion. Because Sweden is located in northern Europe, the weather is cold, and the real Pavilion is useless, so doors and windows are added. The pavilion was burned, From the present photos, it should still be very beautiful,

All the buildings here have a lot of Chinese elements. For example, the walls are decorated with symmetrical square colors in the form of Chinese couplets, surrounded by the common Chinese pattern of ten thousand characters not reaching the end, and the windows are pasted with figure reliefs. It is said that they are modeled after the Chinese officials with official caps in the Qing Dynasty, but the face is really westernized, Although this group of buildings is a bit of a Shanzhai in the eyes of the Chinese people today, the fact that the country far away from China at that time could think of using Chinese elements to decorate the Imperial Palace also shows the influence of the Qing Empire at that time. There is a yurt in the forest

Meeting of mountains and water, meeting of ice and fire

Hongxia Sun